These are the dominant political players in the Orion Spur that are relevant to you, the player. Any of these factions can be utilized in backstories or as origins for characters - go crazy!
Important note : These factions are only the key players in the setting. Nothing stops you from making up your own origin wherever you'd like, so long as it does not contest standing lore's canon. When in doubt, ask a lore writer!
The core location of the setting itself. A bastion of prosperity amidst chaos.
The Republic of Biesel is an independent system within the core of Human space. It is heavily tied to the NanoTrasen corporation at every level of government, and may as well be considered as governed by it to begin with. The Republic of Biesel is the government of the Tau Ceti System, exercising authority over Biesel, New Gibson and all other settlements and installations within Tau Ceti's gravity well. It is one of the most populated systems in human space, a financial center, industrial powerhouse and one of the most prestigious systems in the galaxy. However, unrest and gridlock undermine the government, and the aggressive attitude of the Sol Alliance against its former system has made many worried of the future of the Republic. Tau Ceti is far from the limit of the Republic's boundaries, as the recent addition (post-2462) of the Corporate Reconstruction Zone have led to its size growing immensely. The CRZ, or the Zone, consists of hundreds of once-Solarian worlds which have had no choice but to fall under the Republic's banner, after their supply lines and defenses were cut off by the collapsing or defecting military.
A crumbling giant whose golden age has long passed.
Formerly the most populated singular government entity in known space, the Solarian Alliance is the first and one of the most politically powerful trans-stellar Human factions. While its reign formerly consisted of nearly a quarter of charted space in a growing sphere around Earth, it has now diminished significantly in size. Its loyal forces have recently retreated to the "Jewel Worlds," a region of space where its most treasured assets lay, not to mention its throne upon the home world. The Alliance is strangled by its long-standing reliance on Einstein Engines, a corporation that has survived almost total nationalization to become the foremost employer in Solarian space. The government and the corporation now stand as fierce opposition to the growing Stellar Corporate Conglomerate whose power contests them. Sol's jewel worlds and secure borders are surrounded by the Human Wildlands, dominated by warlord admirals who formerly served the Alliance' tremendously bloated military.
Freedom and independence embodied on an interstellar scale.
This loosely confederated Coalition is the largest power in the frontier, and possibly the most populous entity in the Orion Spur. It is the largest fracture from the Sol Alliance after the Interstellar War, and covers several regions with its utterly tremendous borders. The systems of the Coalition greatly value their independence and freedom. A few powerful systems dominate the politics of the Frontier, headed by the Xanu Free League - the capital of it all. Many of those in the Coalition of Colonies harbor distrust of the Sol Alliance even after the end of the Interstellar War. Humans and aliens from any and all ethnicities, as well as any combination of them, can be found in the Coalition of Colonies. In recent times, the Coalition has conquered a huge amount of territories where the Alliance formerly stood guard. For example, the tremendous Alliance Neutral Zone - a place where both sides were forbidden from entering - no longer exists, and has since been deemed Coalition territory after the Solarian withdrawal.
Glistening utopian city-scapes and technological might.
The Republic of Elyra, or its more official name, The Serene Republic of Elyra, is a bustling, benevolent independent power in the Badlands. It is made up of multiple star systems, with its capital in the highly developed technological utopia of Perispolis. Its national motto is "For Greatness We Strive". It is known for its exotic culture, highly progressive - if Pro-Human nature, and advanced industrial wonders. Elyra is one of the only three factions in the Orion Spur which innately possess phoron deposits of any sort, something they have exploited to their fullest potential in recent years.
Religious pride in the Emperor and country.
A heavily religious absolute monarchy with its capital, Nova Luxembourg, on the planet of Moroz in the Mira Sancta system. This autocratic state is ruled by His Imperial Majesty Boleslaw Keeser. The Empire of Dominia was proclaimed in 2385 by then-Emperor Godwin Keeser, unifying a colony which had been isolated for hundreds of years. Imperial society is dominated by the Great and Minor Houses under the Emperor and is very socio-economically stratified due to the so-called blood debt, known as the Mor’iz’al.
Corporation-dominated hell, personified through a terrible societal split.
Eridani, or the Eridani Corporate Federation, is an oligarchic republic in the Epsilon Eridani system dominated entirely by a council of mega-corporations that seek profit and expansion at any cost. It has no official capital - government authority is exercised digitally. The Corporate Federation is known as one of the core economic powers of Solarian space, and is technically under Solarian supervision - though the true extent of this is up for debate. Corporations, in reality, rule the gloomy landscapes of the Corporate Federation’s worlds. Its citizens are called Eridanians. Eridanians are famed for their vicious treatment of one another, distinguishing between two primary classes ; Dregs, and Suits - who in effect represent a fine line between poverty and wealth.
The Free Frontier
Whatever you want. Really.
The frontier consists of all space unclaimed by one of the major interstellar powers. The population of the frontier is difficult to estimate, but conservative guesses place it between 25 and 50 billion. The government, technological development, economy, and social systems of these independent systems vary wildly. Piracy, corporate exploitation, and smuggling are commonplace throughout the frontier. People hailing from these areas, known as frontiersmen, are known for their rugged independence and distrust of megacorporations and government alike.
Xeno factions independently hardly parallel the combined prevalence of Humanity. However, major factions such as the Nralakk Federation - which borders the Sol Alliance directly, and exercise total authority over their controlled space, are seen as key players in galactic politics.
An higher-up galactic player, authoritarian in its nature.
The Nralakk Federation is a centralized union of systems, ran by councillors representing Skrell interests in a clear hierarchy. Although humans have fractured heavily in their expansion, Skrell have remained in largely a singular government through strict reinforcement of education and laws, working as a democratic meritocracy. Social media is maintained by the Federation government, who gag unacceptable discussions or thoughts and instead encourage people to be like the Idols that they reward with credits, high quality housing, and fine living.
The proud Unathi Hegemony in all its glory.
The Izweski Clan is led by Clan Leader Not'zar Izweski , a Unathi who has ruled the Hegemony since his father S'kresti Izweski, the previous Hegemon, was assassinated. Under him are the Lords who rule their own subjugated clans. They live in a feudal system, with the Lords usually being clan leaders or important clan members themselves who pledge themselves to Izweski in exchange for land and protection. After the Contact War devastated the Unathi homeworld, the Izweski Hegemony has struggled to follow traditions to keep themselves in power.
The most powerful and first space-faring state in Adhomai.
Led by President Njadrasanukii Hadii, the People’s Republic of Adhomai are considered the 'loyalist' faction on Adhomai and once enjoyed galactic recognition as the government of Adhomai. It claims to be the true keeper of Al’mari’s legacy. However, the PRA can be described as a Hadiist branch of Al’marii’s revolutionary ideology - that means putting the State at the top of a hierarchy of power. The PRA is a very centralized state, but in recent years has slowly been able to start making true its promises to bring revolution to the masses. With land reform, enfranchisement of women and peasantry, literacy initiatives, and the collectivization of farms and the means of production, the PRA is struggling to hold true to its radical ideals while an entrenched upper party stubbornly tries to hold onto power.